Surface drilling methods are adopted in areas where the drilling location is vacant and has enough space for the drilling rig to set the point. There are various diameters of drilling bits used in surface drilling based on the usage of the borewell. As per current market situation high power rigs are equipped with a facility to drill borewells up to 1200 feet.
Domestic / Home purpose – 4.75 inch, 6 inch, 6.5 inch borewell drilling
Agriculture purpose – 6.5 inch, 8 inch, 10 inch, 12 inch borewell drilling
Industrial purpose – 6.5 inch, 8 inch, 10 inch, 12 inch borewell drilling
Borewell Drilling procedure:
Drilling procedure of a 6.5 inch borewell is been explained in our draft, the procedure is the same for all dimensions of drilling. The drilling rig is been set exactly in the point marked by a water diviner, hydro geologist, groundwater locator or a borewell point identification expert. Once the drilling rig is set in the point the 6.5 inch borewell drilling bit is set with the hydraulic hammer which gives pressure for the bits and is forced into the earth surface with the power produced from the high pressure compressor to blast the hole from the surface of the earth until the hard rock formation is hit.
Once the hard rock formation encounters the complete set of drilling rods along with the hammer and 6.5 inch bit is removed to the surface and casing pipes made of MS iron or PVC of required grade and thickness of 5 inch(6kg) diameter is been installed into the borehole which works as a wall for the borehole avoiding the soil to fall into the well.
After inserting the casing pipes 5 inch bit is been set with the hammer to drill the rock and is again driven into the bore hole and the rock is been drilled with a pressure based on the geological formation of the area. Normally drilling rods of measurement 5 feet each are been set for each and every 5 feet to drill all the way from the surface to the required target. When the drilling is in progress the driller or the drilling supervisor carefully watches the changes in formation for each and every foot. Usually the rock color and formation changes step by step in certain cases we also find the same rock throughout. The supervisor keeps an eye if there is some issues of silt or boulders during drilling, if silt or boulders occur during drilling special pipes called slotted or screener pipes need to be installed throughout the borewell. Once the water encounters from the borewell, it would be visibly running out from the drilled hole, approximately drilling supervisors can estimate the amount of yield from the borewell.
In case the water is sufficient the drilling process can be stopped if not it can be continued until the drilling reaches the next source. If the amount of water is high in the borewell, the borewell drilling cannot be processed
Issues:• Always do not construct any kind of storage tanks or septic tanks near the borewell as it may result in contamination of the well.
• If the borewell are not cleaned at least once in two years it may result in blockage of sources.
• Gelatin blasting in borewell may end up in complete collapse of the well.
• Usage of borewell without installation of slotted casings in silted and boulder conditions may collapse the well, motor may get struck, issues in pumping may occur.
Our ancient religious texts and epics give a good insight into the water storage and conservation systems that prevailed in those days.
Over the years rising populations, growing industrialization, and expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. Efforts have been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs and digging wells; some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate (remove salts) water. Water conservation has become the need of the day. The idea of ground water recharging by harvesting rainwater is gaining importance in many cities.
In the forests, water seeps gently into the ground as vegetation breaks the fall. This groundwater in turn feeds wells, lakes, and rivers. Protecting forests means protecting water ‘catchments’. In ancient India, people believed that forests were the ‘mothers’ of rivers and worshipped the sources of these water bodies.
Some ancient Indian methods of water conservationThe Indus Valley Civilization, that flourished along the banks of the river Indus and other parts of western and northern India about 5,000 years ago, had one of the most sophisticated urban water supply and sewage systems in the world. The fact that the people were well acquainted with hygiene can be seen from the covered drains running beneath the streets of the ruins at both Mohenjodaro and Harappa. Another very good example is the well-planned city of Dholavira, on Khadir Bet, a low plateau in the Rann in Gujarat. One of the oldest water harvesting systems is found about 130 km from Pune along Naneghat in the Western Ghats. A large number of tanks were cut in the rocks to provide drinking water to tradesmen who used to travel along this ancient trade route. Each fort in the area had its own water harvesting and storage system in the form of rock-cut cisterns, ponds, tanks and wells that are still in use today. A large number of forts like Raigad had tanks that supplied water.
In ancient times, houses in parts of western Rajasthan were built so that each had a rooftop water harvesting system. Rainwater from these rooftops was directed into underground tanks. This system can be seen even today in all the forts, palaces and houses of the region.
Underground baked earthen pipes and tunnels to maintain the flow of water and to transport it to distant places, are still functional at Burhanpur in Madhya Pradesh, Golkunda and Bijapur in Karnataka, and Aurangabad in Maharashtra.